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  • N° 31, 2010/2 – The Effects of Europeanizing Immigration Policies | Politique européenne
    that a new European migration system dependent on the secondary labor market exploitation of new East West movers is in the making thanks to an opening to the East that has enabled a stricter attempt to close doors to immigration from the South and elsewhere along clearly racialized lines Mathilde Darley The Construction of the Immigration Problem in the Czech Republic Public Action under European Influence The geopolitical history of the Czech Republic which is characterized by its communist past the construction of an independent state at the beginning of the 1990s and accession to the EU in 2004 and the Schengen zone in 2007 is a privileged field for observing how the issue of illegal migration and its control was constructed or even invented in new EU Member States over the past twenty years Beyond analyses of Europeanization as a top down transfer of European models imposed to national actors this paper seeks to explore the influence of the socio professional careers and roles of the main actors involved locally and nationally in the definition of an immigration problem in the process of re appropriation of European norms This interdisciplinary and multilevel approach which is inspired by the sociology of public action and the tradition of ethnographic observation should enable us to shed new light on what anchors the legitimacy of the European project in matters of migration policy in the Czech Republic as well as in other states that recently joined the EU and the Schengen zone Nora El Qadim Confronting European Migration Policy Dealing with Constraints and Finding Opportunities The Case of Morocco The presence of sub Saharan migrants in Morocco is relatively recent not being officially recognized until 2000 In spite of the complexities of their routes and projects these migrants are considered in transit while involved in negotiations with European countries However we argue that Morocco is not the mere agent of European migration policies but rather that the presence of these migrants on its territory given its strategic location at the gates of Europe has been used as a form of geographic rent Various levels of negotiation both national and European have been used to obtain as many advantages as possible in exchange of active participation in the fight against illegal migration mainly through re admission agreements The interpretation and implementation of these agreements have also created new opportunities for negotiations Pierre Monforte The Constellation of Non governmental Organizations and European Immigration and Asylum Policies What Actors for What Paths to Europeanization Who Are the Actors and What Are the Means of Europeanization In the context of the integration of immigration and asylum policies associations mobilizing around these issues have gradually become Europeanized along different paths some from above privileging cooperation with European institutions others from below privileging protest with some blending both dynamics This paper explains these various modes of Europeanization and shows that they are determined by the alliance strategies of associative actors as well as by the logics guiding inter institutional

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/n-31-20102-the-effects-of-europeanizing-immigration-policies/ (2016-04-30)
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  • N° 32, 2010/3 – The Group of Experts in the Government of the European Union | Politique européenne
    within by those agencies This type of analysis could nevertheless be of interest for better understanding the elementary mechanisms that compose socialisation and social learning processes by analysing the actual production process of information one can disclose what are the peculiar nature and features of this information and according to which it is considered as true reliable or legitimate by actors evolving in European arenas networks and institutions It helps explaining the efficacy of ideas i e their capacity to circulate to convince and finally to affect the behaviours of its main targets Anne Cécile Douillet Jacques de Maillard Expert Groups as an Uncertain Resource The Case of the Directorate General for Justice Freedom and Security In an area where Member States have so far been prominent the use of expert committees by the Directorate General for Justice Freedom and Security is marked by a concern for institutional positioning These groups function as a resource for facilitating involvement in new policy fields or acceptance of proposals by the Council of Europe This strategic use is visible in the profiles of valued experts However the functioning of these groups also reveals the weaknesses of the European Commission which circumvents states uneasily and does not have the means to control the committees Marie Hrabanski Expert Groups in Directorate General for Agriculture Variation in the Uses of Expertise and Socialization for EU Policy Making Norms The diversity of levels of expertise in the European Commission s Directorate General for Agriculture and Rural Development suggests that a normative conception of experts and expertise should be avoided Based on in depth fieldwork in the agricultural sectors of tobacco and sugar beet the paper analyzes the operation of two specific groups namely experts committees and advisory groups in the work of this Directorate General Although these

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/n-32-20103-the-group-of-experts-in-the-government-of-the-european-union/ (2016-04-30)
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  • N° 27, 2009/1 – Unions Standing the Test of Europe | Politique européenne
    social movements on the European Union agenda Trade Unions are reverting back to national solutions in an attempt to mitigate the social costs of deregulation Anne Catherine Wagner The Making of European Labor Unionists An Investigation into European Trades Union Council s Training Courses Since the 1980s the European Trades Union Council ETUC has organized training courses that aim to Europeanize unionists This paper analysis these courses as a specific mode of acculturation in Europe These training courses consist not in inculcating an identity but in transmitting technical and social skills They allow for the accumulation of social capital and the consolidation of European networks However they also reveal a number of contradictions in the Europeanization of labor unions Hélène Michel Labor Unions and the New European Governance The Issue of Representing and Defending Social Interests The white paper on European governance of 2001 advocated the participation of civil society in devising and implementing European policies as a matter of principle Thus it encouraged the various institutions to set up a civil dialogue along the lines of the social dialogue as if the borders between the two were definite and referred to distinct organizations Based on the conceptions and experiences of the civil dialogue discussed in the European Economic and Social Committee and the Directorate General for Employment Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities this paper shows how labor unionists had to redefine the nature of the interests they represent and the way they defend them at the European level Contrary to analyses that see worker participation as weakening labor unions and hence as mere interest groups among others with no more legitimacy or prerogatives a survey of the practices of groups representing social interests show that under some conditions such participation can be an asset for labor unions concerned with promoting a less institutional idea of unionism and its means of intervention at the European level Loïc Moissonnier European Labor Unions and the Global Justice Movement Strengthened Cohesion or Reflection of Diversity This paper deals with the participation of labor unions in the Global Justice Movement at the European level We focus on the strategies of unions that are members of the European Trades Union Council ETUC and of the Council itself toward this transnational movement of contention which has been visible in Europe and the world through several counter summits and social forums since the end of the 1990s Do the unions in the Global Justice Movement refer to a common strategy aimed at reinforcing the cohesion of labor unionism behind the ETUC banner Although the decisions to take part or not in the movement reflect a great diversity of conceptions of labor unionism in Europe the unions and the ETUC try to appear as a homogeneous actor within it However these attempts remain limited by the remote participation of the ETUC and by its lack of leadership From a labor union viewpoint the emergence of the Global Justice Movement reveals the weaknesses of organized unionism at the European

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/n-27-20091-unions-standing-the-test-of-europe/ (2016-04-30)
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  • N° 28, 2009/2 – European Elections and the European Parliament. Between Influence and Indifference | Politique européenne
    open ballots which allow citizens to vote for individual candidates were used throughout the EU there would be a much stronger connection between citizens and their MEPs and there would also be higher voter turnout in European elections Till Weber When the cat is away the mice will play why elections to the European parliament are about Europe after all Elections to the European Parliament EP are only nominally about Europe Domestic concerns and not the future of the integration process dominate the public agenda even in these EU wide contests This is at least the conclusion one could draw from 30 years of research on second order elections In recent years however scholars have begun to contest the second order paradigm voting behavior in EP elections seems to reflect a mixture of domestic and European concerns Here I try to show that such a compromise solution misses the very point behind the second order argument Even if Europe often matters for voting behavior the degree of this influence depends on the dynamics of domestic party competition I provide evidence that approaching elections to national parliaments remove preferences on integration from the vote function National governments as the decisive actors in the European Council are still elected in European vacuo By contrast attention to the integration process appears to be highest in midterm elections to the EP that is not entitled to intervene in matters of institutional design Reasons for this apparent paradox are discussed Willy Beauvallet Laurent Godmer Guillaume Marrel Sébastien Michon Producing Institutional Legitimacy in the European Parliament The Case of the Committee on Constitutional Affairs Within the European Union the European Parliament should be considered one of the main venues for the practice of political power being an institutional space whose democratic deficit is compensated by the staging of internal expertise produced and sustained by elected representatives who accumulate resources both internal and external to the institution This paper develops this hypothesis focusing on the case of the Committee on Constitutional Affairs Even though this Committee deals with a sector that is far from practicing joint decision making it hosts parliamentary elites Expertise on the institutional challenges faced by the EU lies first and foremost and the valorization of the political academic and European legitimacy of a powerful group made up of elected representatives assisted by collaborators and administrators Selma Bendjallah Polarization in the European Parliament and Its Standing Committees Partisan and Normative Representativeness In this paper the European Parliament work is analyzed through its standing committees More precisely the recent parliamentarian activity is more and more characterized by partisan conflict in committees e g SIEG It seems then pertinent to study characteristics of this polarization Partisan representativity which is here supposed to define partisan conflict is measured by two criteria committees composition and the percentage of amendments adopted on the floor stage Results show that representativity and conflict depend on the type of committees and procedures legislative or not then this paper shows to what extent

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/n-28-20092-european-elections-and-the-european-parliament-between-influence-and-indifference/ (2016-04-30)
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  • N° 29, 2009/3 – Europe as Seen through the Lens of Turkey | Politique européenne
    of national and institutional interests the most pertinent analysis aiming to grasp the wide range of opinions existing on the subject is undoubtedly to try to understand the European vision of the Europeans states and entities that will likely decide the fate of Turkey s candidacy Thus the issue of Turkey s membership could be resolved by answering the following question Tell me your vision of Europe and I will tell you if it includes Turkey Senem AYDIN DÜZGIT Constructing Europe through Turkey french perceptions on Turkey s accession to the European union France is one of the key member states to contribute to the debate on Turkey s relations with the European Union The purpose of this article is to shed light on the different Europes that are constructed in debates on Turkey s accession to the European Union among French politicians Since Turkey is often described as a fundamental challenge to the European project due to the ambiguities surrounding its Europeanness French political debates on Turkey are expected to constitute a fundamental terrain over which various constructions of the European Self are undertaken within a given national context that remains at the core of European integration Fabien Terpan Turkey and the EU s Common Foreign and Security Policy Turkish foreign policy and the Common Foreign and Security Policy CFSP are converging From a European point of view geopolitical and power related reasons are the main incentives From a Turkish point of view the EU might play a role in regional stabilization and can help to achieve a major goal namely for Turkey to be more deeply involved in Western organizations If convergence is to be enhanced efforts are required on both sides Greater normalization of Turkish foreign policy and a clarification of European willingness to include Turkey in

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/n-29-20093-europe-as-seen-through-the-lens-of-turkey/ (2016-04-30)
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  • N° 24, 2008/1 – God Is Far from Brussels | Politique européenne
    what is the significance of this initiative and why pay attention to the local level Virginie Riva Intellectual Debates about Europe from a Religious Point of View in France and Italy In the intellectual debates linked with the construction of Europe as a polity religious controversies have been of growing importance In particular the debate on the influence of the Christian heritage in the definition of a European identity informs us about the political use of the idea of Europe This debate allows for the resetting of the various uses of religion as a resource The comparison between France and another Catholic country Italy allows us to consider sources of variation in the intensity of this debate This debate reveals the reintroduction of a civilization paradigm in the representation of history Sylvain Crépon The Fight for the Recognition of Religious Symbols in Schools A Comparative Study of France and Belgium A Comparative Study on France and Belgium Should the principle of integration take into account the religious or cultural specificities of people of immigrant origin Such is the question raised by debates around the wearing of Muslim headscarves in public places combining the question of religious freedom with that of the integration of populations of immigrant origin Comparing the points of view of groups claiming the right to wear religious signs in schools in Belgium and France our research shows that most choose to adapt to the rules of the country where they live in the hope of having their demands satisfied In short there does not exist in Europe any homogeneous opposition to the prohibition of religious signs in public places the arguments expressed depending each time on the jurisdiction of each country Florence Bergeaud Blackler The Regulation of Industrialized Ritual Slaughter in the European Union Limits and Perspectives

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/n-24-20081-god-is-far-from-brussels/ (2016-04-30)
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  • N° 25, 2008/2 – Sociological Approaches to European Integration. Critical Perspectives | Politique européenne
    the object of study of European studies In this article we will suggest a sociological framework by exploring key notions such as rationality and reflexivity It is our claim that these are the tools necessary for explaining what remains one of the biggest issues of European studies namely the interplay of European institutions and actors both within the Brussels game and across national frontiers These epistemological and ontological presuppositions prevent a great deal of research based on the same presuppositions and the dualisms they produce individualinstitution socialization calculation supranational national etc from developing a more complex thick description of EU integration Julien Weisbein Contrapuntal Europe New Research Topics and Valuable Old Sociological Theories in the Study of EU Questions New Empirical Objects and Good Old Sociological Theories in the Study of EU Questions This paper adapts to European studies the contrapuntal logic of musicology i e the relationship between two or more voices or melodies that are independent in contour and rhythm and interdependent in harmony The several melodies simultaneously played thus intertwine and together form a richer whole A contrapuntal Europe may thus bring together two original objects in the field of European studies Elsewhere Europe and Otherwise Europe In the first section of this paper it is argued that European integration affects social groups not only from above i e through top down norms and patterns but also from below For scholars new research topics can thus be found elsewhere through indirect reflections on EU institutionalization However the study of such new topics requires no new paradigms Instead notions widely used by scholars in understanding what is taking place in EU integration can be enlighten thanks to traditional sociological tools The second section of the paper discusses a notion specific to EU issues namely Europeanization through an old concept drawn from Norbert Elias s work in order to demonstrate that the latter can considerably enrich the former Bernard Jullien Andy Smith The European Union and the Regulation of Industries Toward a Political Sociology of the Economy Informed by an ontology an epistemology and concepts forged with the support of a sociology that is essentially French this article sets out to analyse the regulation of industries in Europe by adopting a perspective that combines institutionalist theories developed in industrial economics and public policy analysis It then shows how transforming this approach into interdisciplinary empirical research questions provides a means of systematically studying the European government of industries Finally by encompassing a wide cross section of European industrial organizations and policies this research strategy generates hypotheses on the dynamics of this government and in particular of the role competition policy plays within it Sophie Jacquot Cornelia Woll A Sociological Perspective on Strategic Action in European Integration Many have noted that European integration theory has moved beyond the theoretical divide between inter governmentalists and neo functionalists that marked the 1990s While some authors simply abandoned theoretical frameworks to concentrate on empirical puzzles others adopted positions stemming from international relations theory or

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/n-25-20082-sociological-approaches-to-european-integration-critical-perspectives/ (2016-04-30)
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  • N° 26, 2008/3 – Enchantment and Disenchantment among Europeans | Politique européenne
    the paper examines why in the Perpignan case cross border policies are based on feelings whereas in the Mulhouse case these policies are justified by economic development or land management without any mention of emotions between European neighbors To explain this gap the paper analyzes not only the definition of cross border territories inserted in a complex multilevel scheme but also the use or lack thereof of emotions in the political management of these territories Denis Duez Europe and Undocumented Migrants Fear of the Other as a Factor for Integration Having presented the role of fear in building the political community from a modern political theory perspective the article highlights the role of fear of the Other in the history of European integration The study draws attention to the more consensual nature of the fight against illegal migration compared to other issues such as terrorism and transnational organized crime Thus it underlines how undocumented migration has become a core issue in the context of the implementation of Europe s Area of Freedom Security and Justice Furthermore exploring Carl Schmitt s Friend Enemy distinction the author suggests that the action towards illegal migration is not only an aspect of the European immigration and asylum policy but could also be seen as part of a broader and common European political discourse on insecurities that contributes to the strengthening of the European community Isabelle Guinaudeau Astrid Kufer From Organized Germans Romantic Italians and English Dandies to Christian Wealthy and Democratic Europeans The Emotional Potential of National and European Stereotypes This contribution deals with stereotypes as a potential vector of the construction of a European we feeling by proposing a state of the art and inviting to reconsider stereotypes integrative potential On the basis of a framework developed by social psychology we propose hypotheses on the articulation between stereotypes and affects and on the possible contribution of stereotypes to affective bonds between Europeans By crossing results of several empirical studies we draw an illustrative map of European stereotypes and discuss their affective implications in the light of social psychology Sophie Duchesne Virginie Van Ingelgom French and French Speaking Belgian Lack of Interest in Their European Neighbors Another Piece of Evidence for the Case of the Missing European Political Community Starting from the asymmetry observed between the setting up of European citizenship and the persistent national identifications of Europeans this paper addresses the question of the reciprocal feelings of Europeans for each other within the framework of a broader question about mechanisms for the formation of a European political community In the medium term could a degree of preference for other Europeans compensate for the fact that Europeans have little knowledge of interest in or attachment to their Union The analysis is based on results from eight focus groups organized in Paris and Brussels using a moderation technique designed to foster the expression of disagreement between participants Because they are conflictive these discussions are characterized by their emotionality We analyze the emotions shown by participants

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/n-26-20083-enchantment-and-disenchantment-among-europeans/ (2016-04-30)
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