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  • N°40 2013/2 – Les effets de l’européanisation dans le domaine social | Politique européenne
    traditionnellement connu un écart avec la politique sociale européenne émergente Au cours des deux dernières décennies des pressions adaptatives importantes ont conduit à l adoption de différentes réformes incitées par des contraintes externes en particulier européennes Cet article s intéresse aux transformations des politiques publiques et aux dynamiques politiques en matière de retraites et d emploi identifiant ainsi trois phases de réforme entre 1990 et 2012 Depuis 2009 la phase la plus récente d urgence nationale a permis aux responsables politiques italiens de faire adopter deux réformes majeures en matière d emploi et de retraites À la différence des réformes précédentes ils ont fait passer ces réformes en dépit des réticences des syndicats et de l opposition et les ont de facto imposées en se réclamant de Bruxelles auprès d une population de plus en plus eurosceptique Comme le montre cet article les contraintes européennes se sont donc récemment transformées en conditions suffisantes pour les réformes sociales en Italie alors même que les marges de manœuvre des acteurs nationaux dans ce domaine ont fortement diminuées Thomas Kostera Quand les acteurs s abstiennent de faire usage de l Europe Le cas d un système de santé bismarckien Marquées par l empreinte Bismarckienne et les spécificités typiques de l Europe du Sud du régime d État providence italien les politiques sociales et les politiques d emploi italiennes ont traditionnellement connu un écart avec la politique sociale européenne émergente Au cours des deux dernières décennies des pressions adaptatives importantes ont conduit à l adoption de différentes réformes incitées par des contraintes externes en particulier européennes Cet article s intéresse aux transformations des politiques publiques et aux dynamiques politiques en matière de retraites et d emploi identifiant ainsi trois phases de réforme entre 1990 et 2012 Depuis 2009 la phase la plus récente d urgence nationale a permis aux responsables politiques italiens de faire adopter deux réformes majeures en matière d emploi et de retraites À la différence des réformes précédentes ils ont fait passer ces réformes en dépit des réticences des syndicats et de l opposition et les ont de facto imposées en se réclamant de Bruxelles auprès d une population de plus en plus eurosceptique Comme le montre cet article les contraintes européennes se sont donc récemment transformées en conditions suffisantes pour les réformes sociales en Italie alors même que les marges de manœuvre des acteurs nationaux dans ce domaine ont fortement diminuées Paolo R Graziano Sophie Jacquot Bruno Palier Usages et européanisation De l influence multiforme de l Union européenne sur les réformes des systèmes nationaux de protection sociale La littérature récente sur les transformations des systèmes de protection sociale amontré que l Union européenne est une variable importante à prendre en compte afin de comprendre les réformes nationales dans ce domaine Notre objectif ici est d analyser et de préciser les mécanismes politiques par lesquels l UE joue un rôle dans les changements de politique sociale de ses États membres Nous affirmons dans cet article qu afin de comprendre comment

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/fr/n40-20132-les-effets-de-leuropeanisation-dans-le-domaine-social/ (2016-04-30)
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  • N° 47, 2015/1 – La construction de l’Autre. Définir les « identités à la marge » dans l’espace européen | Politique européenne
    un effet symbolique positif en les excluant de la catégorie Autre Une telle redéfinition de l intégration renforce alors selon nous à la fois la dimension culturelle et l identité au cœur du projet européen Il s agira enfin de préciser les caractéristiques et les questions soulevées par ce nouveau modèle d intégration qui se consolide au niveau européen Romain Calba Les pratiques contemporaines de l identification nationale L exemple des cérémonies d acquisition de la nationalité en France en Allemagne et au Royaume Uni Des cérémonies à l attention des nouveaux citoyens ont été mises en place de façon concomitante dans différents pays européens à partir des années 2000 Ces nouvelles pratiques illustrent une volonté politique de solenniser l entrée dans la communauté nationale et matérialisent un imaginaire national contemporain À travers une étude comparative des évolutions législatives et administratives relatives aux politiques d intégration et de nationalité en France Allemagne et au Royaume Uni il s agira d observer les représentations et pratiques contemporaines de cette identification nationale Nous pourrons dès lors souligner les éventuels processus de convergence dans la définition de l identité et de l altérité questionnant en cela l idée de modèles nationaux différents Lisa Vapné L accueil des migrants juifs en Allemagne Un exemple de politique publique de l identité Cet article a pour objet de présenter la politique d accueil spécifique menée en RFA depuis 1991 à destination d individus identifiés comme juifs par leurs papiers d identité émis dans l ex Union soviétique Initialement mise sur l agenda au nom de l accueil d une population potentiellement victime de l antisémitisme en Union soviétique cette politique s oriente par la suite vers l objectif de reconstruire une vie juive en Allemagne grâce à cet afflux de migrants catégorisé en termes ethnoreligieux Au cours des années 2000 alors même que l Allemagne s éloignait de la prédominance de l ethnicité dans sa définition de la nation nous expliquerons les modalités par lesquelles une telle politique a perduré notamment en interrogeant les catégorisations au sujet de l accueil de ce groupe qui a fait l objet de représentations positives retournées ensuite en formes de disqualification Antoine Saillard L Autre dans les mécanismes étatiques de contrôle de la mobilité France seconde moitié du XIXe siècle Au milieu du XIX e siècle plusieurs États européens se dotent d outils de contrôle de la mobilité En ciblant des populations spécifiques et en organisant leur relégation ces outils cherchent à contrôler la mobilité aussi bien intérieure qu internationale La comparaison de trois dispositifs de ce type mis en place en France nous permettra dès lors d appréhender les mécanismes créateurs d altérité et de marginalité Par là nous questionnerons la construction de la figure de l étranger dans la seconde moitié du XIX e siècle en envisageant les contours complexes et mouvants des deux termes d une dialectique le Même et l Autre Pierre Weiss L art du contre pied L identification à une équipe de football issue

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/fr/n-47-20151-the-construction-of-the-other-defining-identity-at-the-margins-in-the-european-space/ (2016-04-30)
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    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/wp-login.php?redirect_to=http%3A%2F%2Fpolitique-europeenne.eu%2Fnumeros-precedents%2F (2016-04-30)
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  • N° 43, 2014/1 – Opposed in Diversity: The Uses of Opposition to Europe in France | Politique européenne
    Opposition Characteristics and Consequences of Eurocriticism among French and German MP s in the UMP CDU CSU and FDP Parties The 2012 votes on the European Fiscal Compact and the European Stability Mechanism enabled a few French and German MPs to contest their party s position on this matter We conduct a comparative analysis of the processes which led to these parliamentarians opposition and of the consequences of their votes on their political career We show that these intra partisan oppositions are focused on different stakes in France and Germany and that in Germany partisan discipline led to the control and in some cases to the exclusion of dissidents Emmanuelle Reungoat Mobilizing Europe in the National Competition A Study of the Europeanization of the French National Front The study of the uses of Europe by the leaders of the Front national shows how the opening of a new European political space can have indirect effects in supporting political parties at the domestic level and strengthening specific actors inside political organizations The European theme elections and parliamentary institution are transformed by FN leaders into material as well as symbolic resources mobilized in the national political space at both inter and intra party level These uses of Europe reinforce the capacity for action of the party as well as its legitimacy and visibility It helps FN actors to widen their electorate and helps the party president to strengthen her own position inside the party The article reveals the relative specificity of the FN case and underlines that these uses of Europe by political actors are linked to contextual and institutional factors as well as to the ideological cultural and organizational dimensions of political parties In that regard the study emphasizes strong continuity in the practices of the FN leadership The analysis finally shows the concrete process of the Europeanization of the FN and helps us understand the impact of European integration on domestic political competition Humberto Cucchetti The Royalist s Organization Action Francaise against European Union Intellectual and Activists Relationship between Royalism and Souverainism Movements The history of Action Fran çaise AF since the end of World War II shows how this royalist organization has opposed successive governments European policies In spite of several crises and weak membership AF s description of the European Union as an abandonment of national sovereignty has a legacy To explain this legacy it is essential to understand relations between royalism and sovereigntism among intellectuals and activists We analyze the individual and collectives trajectories of AF members to show the circulation of ideas and persons inside this alternative field Romain Blancaneaux The European Parliament a transmission belt for opponents to the European Commission Wine producers against the liberalization of planting rights In 2009 and 2010 the European and French parliaments opposed the European Commission s reform of the European wine policy Their opposition gained force through a coalition of professional and political agents who took the battle from Brussels to Paris This article takes an institutional and

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/n43-20141-opposes-dans-la-diversite-les-usages-de-lopposition-a-leurope-en-france/ (2016-04-30)
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  • N° 44, 2014/2 – Europe: Crisis, Crises, Crisology | Politique européenne
    on the other hand the public and the private I conclude that in the current set up the private dominates the public so that European institutions are very receptive to the interests of corporations Laurent Warlouzet European Integration History Beyond the Crisis Widely used by historians of European integration the notion of crisis has frequently been associated with relaunching the Community This use betrays an implicit focus on the 6 founding members as well as a teleological temptation As a result the field of European integration history has been accused by its critics of being itself in crisis Nowadays however the methods and conceptual approaches of European integration history are being renewed through the history of European cooperation Andy Smith The Scientific Uses of The Crisis in 2008 and Later The Case of European Studies How have European Union scholars described and interpreted post 2008 economic difficulties Based on a review of the four main English language journals in this academic field Journal of Common Market Studies Journal of European Public Policy Journal of European Integration et West European Politics this article first analyses the quantity of articles produced and their producers Secondly it uncovers the theoretical conceptual and normative assumptions that have guided these publications In so doing I revisit sociological hypotheses regarding European Studies and their relationship to academic disciplines the scientific method and supporters of greater European integration While validating and refining these hypotheses I also highlight the weakness of political economy within contemporary political science together with its virtual absence in European Union scholarship Varia Arthur Borriello The Symbolic Abolition of Politics the Virtue of Necessity Budgetary Reforms in the Speeches of the President of the Italian Council The recent debt crisis in the Eurozone has led to austerity reforms that present many common features Going

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/n44-20142-crise-crises-et-crisologie-europeenne/ (2016-04-30)
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  • N°45 2014/3 – The Politics of Values in EU Governance: Occurrences, Effects and Modes of Regulation of Values | Politique européenne
    the values are rarely consensual In many areas they are still remaining rather contrasted but not extremely polarized what the distribution of the individuals on the left right scale studied for the whole of the European Union and for each country already indicates The paper then shows that main traditional political conflicts identified by Rokkan are today quite weakened New conflicts and more generally the main themes of public debate do not appear to give rise to a strong polarization of values between rightist and leftist people Oriane Calligaro From European cultural heritage to cultural diversity The changing core values of European cultural policy This article analyses the discursive shift in the EU cultural policy from culture based identity to value based citizenship While the promotion of European cultural heritage proposed to embody the values of European integration and highlighted specific cultural references intercultural dialogue is a procedural tool based on shared European values also presented as universal Therefore intercultural dialogue represents a departure from an ontological approach to European identity and culture Promotion of cultural expressions is not abandoned but the concept of European cultural heritage lost its pivotal role in EU cultural policy to give way to a supposedly more inclusive frame Jim Dratwa How values come to matter at the European Commission Ethical experimentations of Europe How do values affect the workings of the European Commission This paper examines a particular instantiation of that question by studying the institutionalisation of ethics at the European Commission Building on the literature on ethical expertise in policymaking which has critically underscored the democratisation and the instrumentalisation of ethical expertise this paper scrutinises a further set of transformative effects Mobilising studies of expertise as well as of politicisation and of morality policies while considering specific cases in the field it evidences the features and challenges of the ethics lattice within the European Commission also extending to other bodies Emilie Mondo The role of values in EU bioethics politics An American culture wars scenario The case of abortion This article analyzes the effect of values on European morality politics through the abortion issue In front of the politicization of a sovereign competence within the EU the American theory of culture wars enables to study the instrumentalization of values by faith based groups The qualitative methodological approach relies on both semi structured interviews and documents analysis The results confirm that values help actors to re assert a particular identity EU level controversies on the meaning of secular but not value free notions then induce a shift from values as resources to values as ends This could have an impact on traditional European politics Aurélia Bardon How to talk about bioethics God human dignity and embryonic stem cells in France and in the United States In liberal political theory it is often assumed that justifications of political decisions should not make use of non political values especially religious ones but only of political values Deep moral questions notably concerning bioethics have however failed to

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/n45-20143-les-valeurs-dans-la-gouvernance-europeenne-occurrences-effets-et-modes-de-regulation/ (2016-04-30)
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  • N° 39, 2013/1 – The European Union and the New Balance of Power | Politique européenne
    we are to understand European and Chinese foreign policies toward the African continent Elena Aoun The European Union in the Mediterranean Discarded Norms and Retreating Power Orphaned Norms and Retreating Power The dramatic events that started unfolding in the Mediterranean region since 2011 revealed how volatile it remains in spite of 40 years of European structural foreign policy Though it is much too early to fully grasp the mid and long term consequences of the Arab Spring it is almost certain that this chain of events will have a deep impact on the sociopolitical reconfigurations of North African and Middle Eastern countries and on regional power equations thus creating the need for external actors to adapt This is all the more true for the European Union because of geographic proximity migration realities and economic political and social challenges as well as the close relationships that emerged out of Euro Mediterranean policies In line with the concept of normative power this paper attempts to identify some of the factors that might substantially contribute to the future reconfiguration of Euro Mediterranean relations After surveying the various dimensions of European foreign policy since the 1970s the paper focuses on post Arab Spring reorientations trying to substantiate the claim that being limited by both an institutional and a conceptual path dependency that perpetuates the contradictions of the EU s normative power posture these reorientations seem to portend a weakening of the Union s performative potential and a reduction in its standing in the future balance of power in the Mediterranean Sebastian Santander The EU Inter Regionalism and Rising Powers The Case of the EU Brazil Partnership The European Union now seeks to bind rising powers through strategic partnerships Yet it has long privileged relations with regional blocs rather than individual relations with specific countries as has been the case in its relations with Latin America where the EU has payed special attention to relations with Mercosur However it recently established a direct and regular channel with Brazil through a strategic partnership The paper analyzes the reasons for this partnership the interests at stake and the way in which relations between the EU and Mercosur are articulated with this new associative agreement as well as the obstacles it is facing Our findings show that the European approach to rising powers is aimed not only at conquering new markets for European business but also at increasing the visibility and recognition of the EU as an international actor and demonstrating its ability to be a player in a state centric world In so doing the EU is reversing its strategic logic moving from a strategy based on the idea of a normative actor that promotes international regionalism and interregional relations to a Realpolitik approach that rather than taming and multilateralizing the international actions of the BRICS enhances the power of these states Niels Lachmann Rivalry Community or Strained Partnership Relations between the European Union and the United States With the United States now considering the Asia Pacific

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/n39-20131-lunion-europeenne-et-le-nouvel-equilibre-des-puissances/ (2016-04-30)
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  • N° 40, 2013/2 – The Effects of Europeanization in the Social Field | Politique européenne
    European character of the Italian welfare regime Italian employment and social policies have traditionally shown a marked misfit with the emerging European social policy structure In the last two decades consequent adaptational pressures have led to the adoption of various reforms prompted by external constraints and especially European inputs By focusing on policy development and political dynamics in the fields of pensions and employment policy the paper identifies three phases between 1990 and 2012 The most recent phase of national emergency since 2009 has allowed Italian policy makers to adopt two major pensions and employment policy reforms Unlike in the past these have been pushed through by political actors despite labor union reluctance and opposition and imposed on an increasingly Euro skeptical Italian population by making reference to Brussels The paper argues that European constraints recently turned into sufficient conditions for social reforms in Italy while national actor s leverage in the field significantly declined Thomas Kostera When Actors Abstain from Making Use of Europe The Case of a Bismarkian Healthcare System Following a series of landmark rulings by the European Court of Justice on cross border healthcare Europe now offers actors various resources to pursue their interests beyond the opportunities of their national healthcare system This paper considers whether these actors use those European resources inside of their national healthcare system It investigates actors in the Austrian healthcare system who regulate outpatient care These actors show little to no use of such resources The main thesis of this paper is therefore that this limited use of European resources can be best explained by the taking nationally institutionalized practices of corporatist and consensual negotiations into account which prevent actors from making use of these resources Paolo R Graziano Sophie Jacquot Bruno Palier Practices and Europeanization The Multifaceted Influence of the

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/n40-20132-les-effets-de-leuropeanisation-dans-le-domaine-social/ (2016-04-30)
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