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  • N° 42, 2013/4 – European Economic Policies and the Great Recession | Politique européenne
    the crisis solving process Mehdi Arrignon Policy Endurance Despite the Crisis Why the Context Changed but Employment Policies Did Not A Change in Context and Continuity of European Employment Policies Active social policies try to make work pay better than welfare Such policies have been experimented upon in Europe since 1997 In the first half of the 2000s they failed to accelerate a return to work while results were even worse during the last crisis How can we explain the persistence of such ineffective strategies In an analysis of European institutions in three EU Member States we argue that institutional cognitive and political factors can explain the inertia of public policies in periods of crisis Catherine Spieser The End of the Flexicurity Model and the Resilience of National Models Labor Unions Collective Bargaining and Employment in Germany France and Italy Unions and Employment Negotiations in Germany France and Italy Since the 1990s under the influence of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD and of strategies developed at EU level the notion of flexicurity has become the dominant paradigm for labor market policies However the crisis has led to a questioning of the appropriateness of this policy paradigm in times of economic recession Since 2008 social partners and policy makers have faced a new agenda of fighting the employment crisis all across Europe This comparative study of negotiated policies in Germany France and Italy shows the limited scope of Europeanization and the resilience of national models in this domain We examine the stances of labor unions and employers organizations their practice of social dialogue and collective bargaining and the use of relevant policy instruments We outline three paths toward the reconfiguration of industrial relations in the face of the crisis and provide evidence for three ways in which domestic actors can adapt the idea of flexicurity to the context of the crisis Laurie Beaudonnet Preferences for European Social Policy in Times of Crisis Since 1992 the setting up of Economic and Monetary Union EMU has raised citizens awareness of the economic and social implications of European integration The current economic crisis increased financial pressures on redistribution policies strengthening the public s concerns about the potential consequences for the level of social protection and labor market de regulation However we know little about preferences for redistribution and social policies at the supranational level despite the importance of such preferences for political support in multilevel systems This paper first assesses the attitudinal and economic determinants of preferences for a European social policy over time and then the impact of the recent economic turmoil on these preferences It investigates the empirical validity of the logic for an exit mechanism It relies on a time series cross section analysis of public opinion in the European Union s 27 Member States from 1996 to 2011 using Eurobarometer and Eurostat data George Ross Institutional Knots and EU Economic Governance Intergovernmental Decision Making in the Great Recession and the Eurozone Crisis The EU has always made

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/n42-20134-les-politiques-economiques-europeennes-face-a-la-grande-recession/ (2016-04-30)
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  • N°39 2013/1 – L’Union européenne et le nouvel équilibre des puissances | Politique européenne
    du Printemps arabe sur les moyen et long termes il ne fait aucun doute qu il aura un impact profond sur les reconfigurations socio politiques des pays d Afrique du Nord et du Moyen Orient ainsi que sur les équations régionales nécessitant dès lors un repositionnement de la part des acteurs tiers Cela est d autant plus vrai pour l UE en raison de la proximité géographique des réalités migratoires des enjeux économiques politiques et sociaux ainsi que des liens noués au fil des politiques euroméditerranéennes S inscrivant dans la lignée de la conceptualisation de l UE comme puissance normative cet article tente de dégager certains facteurs susceptibles de contribuer aux reconfigurations futures des rapports euroméditerranéens Après un bilan des différentes dimensions de la politique étrangère européenne depuis les années 1970 l article s intéresse aux réorientations consécutives au Printemps arabe étayant l hypothèse que limités par une dépendance au sentier institutionnelle et conceptuelle qui pérennise les contradictions de la puissance normative de l UE les repositionnements actuels semblent augurer d un affaiblissement du potentiel performatif de l UE et d une réduction de sa place dans les futurs équilibres de puissance en Méditerranée Sebastian Santander L Union européenne l interrégionalisme et les puissances émergentes Le cas du partenariat euro brésilien L Union européenne UE cherche à se lier avec des puissances dites émergentes avec lesquelles elle n hésite pas à sceller des partenariats stratégiques Pourtant elle a longtemps privilégié des relations avec des blocs régionaux au détriment des rapports individuels avec les États comme en témoignent ses rapports avec l Amérique latine L UE a d ailleurs porté une attention particulière vis à vis du Mercosur Mais depuis peu elle développe aussi un canal de relation privilégié avec le Brésil au travers du partenariat dit stratégique La présente contribution s interroge sur les raisons de ce partenariat sur les intérêts des parties pour une telle association sur la manière dont cette dernière s articule avec les relations que l UE entretient avec le Mercosur ainsi que sur les obstacles et les limites qu elle rencontre La démarche européenne consistant à sceller des partenariats stratégiques avec des puissances émergentes vise aussi bien à retirer des avantages économiques pour ses multinationales qu à accroître la visibilité et la reconnaissance de l UE comme acteur international et à démontrer sa capacité à se mouvoir dans un monde stato centre Ce faisant l UE renverse sa logique stratégique Elle passe d une stratégie fondée sur l idée d acteur normatif qui encourage le régionalisme international et les relations interrégionales à une approche aux relents de Realpolitik qui loin de domestiquer et multilatéraliser l action internationale des BRICS valorise la puissance des États Niels Lachmann Rivalry Community or Strained Partnership Relations between the European Union and the United States Rivalité communauté ou partenariat sous tension la relation entre l Union européenne et les États Unis Alors que les États Unis considèrent désormais la région de l Asie Pacifiquecomme la zone d intérêt stratégique du

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/fr/n39-20131-lunion-europeenne-et-le-nouvel-equilibre-des-puissances/ (2016-04-30)
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  • n°50, 2015/4 – Should we continue to Study the EU? | Politique européenne
    in contemporary EU legal studies This should result in a worrying question for European lawyers today about the form that can be given to a collective experience such as European integration Didier Chabanet Nelson F Anacleto Maxime St Arnault Guillaume Freire Xavier Skoczek From Crisis to Crisis Requiem for Europe If the European institutions have always been able to overcome the crisis they face the current difficulties seem particularly serious Since the ratification of the Maastricht Treaty three major problems arise On the one hand the question of the European democratic deficit On the other the narrowing of the space for political choices offer to citizens which is increasingly subject to economic constraints Finally the failure of the European social model These factors largely intertwined are the breeding ground from which Euro skepticism spread among public opinion Interview with Yves Mény Les désillusions d un Européen convaincu II Contre études européennes et lieux communs François Foret De legitimizing Europe Does the EU do that on purpose The EU is commonly perceived as fueling its lack of legitimacy by counter productive policies An innovative hypothesis is that as a deliberate strategy following the theory of upside down legitimacy a search for polarization aims at pushing oppositions to the extremes in order to gain them back ultimately Fresh empirical data test the fictional or realistic dimension of this scenario and are next discussed in relation to the state of the art about the nature and the justification of the European political order This article is a parody for the commemorative 50th issue of Politique européenne Romain Pasquier The end of a Europe of the Regions When we examine the interaction between European integration and regional mobilisation two somewhat contradictory interpretations of the region within a multi level playing field become apparent one school of thought that emphasises the shift towards the decentralisation of power brought about by integration and another that conversely highlights the centripetal force of European policies Although useful the main limitation of these approaches is that they polarise the analysis around a zero sum game between the European Union EU the regions and national governments on the assumption that what one actor loses the others necessarily gain However we need to move beyond this binary debate if we are to fully grasp the proactive regional governance strategies around EU policies Antoine Vauchez Are European studies boring A couple of remarks on a conventional wisdom Despite the many challenges and questions that European integration raises to political science this research topic still maintains a strong reputation of boredom The difficulty certainly relates to the bad reputation of the European Union itself most often thought of as baroque and incomprehensible This brief article takes the opportunity of the anniversary of Politique européenne to question the part that the scholarly field of European studies itself may have in such reputation delineating possible ways out through the development of social sciences of Europe Jean Leca About the Normativity within the European Studies A

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/faut-il-continuer-a-etudier-lunion-europeenne-dirige-par-olivier-rozenberg-20154-n50/ (2016-04-30)
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  • N° 49 2015/3 – Varia | Politique européenne
    Parliament produce more rigid regulatory categories and thereby suggest an alternative mode of governing chemicals Thus regulatory precaution offers a lens through which one can identify the constitutional effects of the regulatory categories for European technical objects Sarah Russeil and Aisling Healy Choosing Urban Expertise for a Europe of Cities The Eurocities Network and its Experts Since the end of the 1980s the European network of cities called Eurocities draws on a range of expertise in order to stand out as an interlocutor on urban issues in the eyes of European institutions and to take part in defining and implementing European public policies dedicated to cities The initial construction of the network s expertise was mainly done by academic experts But once the network established regular relations with European institutions the European Commission and then Parliament these academic experts made way for experts coming from the cities staff and personnel Analysing the urban expertise used and produced by this network enables us to demonstrate that it progressively met the expectations of European institutions It also underlines some of the ways in which local actors elected or appointed by cities and their local authorities may make use of European institutions Thanks to the expertise it produces and or uses this network is therefore a tool of empowerment albeit one that is difficult to control for those cities that wish to avoid the state level of decision making by directly going to the European level Anne Pintz Parliamentary Collective Action under the Early Warning Mechanism The Cases of Monti II and EPPO The Lisbon Treaty introduced the Early Warning Mechanism into the EU decision making process under which National Parliaments monitor the subsidiarity compliance of EU legislative proposals Whilst it is argued that in doing so they meet a collective action problem

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/n-49-20153-varia-forthcoming/ (2016-04-30)
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  • N° 48 2015/2 – Defence Policy in Europe. The Legacy of Bastien Irondelle | Politique européenne
    case of fighter jets Starting from the observation that when it comes to choosing their fighter jets European governments remain divided between four different aircraft the Eurofighter Typhoon the Gripen the Rafale and the JSF F 35 we develop a comparative analysis of national decision making processes Specifically we argue that two variables explain weapon procurement the industrial structure i e the relative autonomy of the military aerospace sector and the political preferences of national strategic elites These two variables derived from political economy and international relations theory allow us to understand the limits of Europeanization in this sector Lucie Béraud Sudreau Samuel B H Faure et Michael Sladeczek Regulating the arms trade through Parliament and public opinion A comparison of arms export controls in Germany France the United Kingdom and Sweden Seeking to explain why some European states strongly regulate arms exports while others do so weakly this article argues that there is no Europeanization of arms export controls We show that neither state industry relations nor the involvement of executive actors explains these variations Two alternative hypotheses are offered the position of Parliament in the arms export control decision making process and the salience of the arms sales issue in public opinion Nicolas Fescharek From Aspirations to Aspirin The Afghan campaign and Europe s quasi strategic inertia The recent literature dealing with the European security and defense policy tends to paint a bleak picture basically telling a story of decline or complacency it describes an ESDP CSDP that started with high aspirations and now fades out with a headache after it died over Libya This paper acknowledges the seriousness of the situation Challenging these declinist approaches however it considers the case of Afghanistan and proposes to think about a European role by default with quasi strategic effects Thus the paper accepts the lack of convergence between Europe s national strategic cultures as a given After showing substantial and enduring differences among the EU s national strategic cultures it explains the paradox of a convergence that takes place around a role by default This results from a desire for US leadership or a complacency towards it as well as a kind of inertia that is shared globally and aims at preserving a modicum of strategic autonomy from the US This notion of a role by default is a more adequate description of Europe s security role than attempts to think up a European strategic culture La campagne en Afghanistan et l inertie quasi stratégique européenne Olivier Schmitt Europeanisation or NATO isation The United Kingdom France and Germany in Afghanistan The decade long military intervention in Afghanistan had a significant effect on the transformation of Western armed forces This article examines one of the pathways of military change namely selective emulation Taken aback by the evolution of fighting in Afghanistan France Germany and the UK looked for doctrinal or technical answers to the challenges they were facing on the ground within NATO the structure and or the member states However

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/defence_policy_in_europe/ (2016-04-30)
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  • N° 47 2015/1 – The Construction of the Other. Defining “Identity at the Margins” in the European Space | Politique européenne
    substantiating an identity for the European project In doing so it advances the process of European integration Finally the article discusses the challenges and characteristics of the new integration model consolidating at the EU level Romain Calba Contemporary Practices of National Identification The Example of Citizenship Ceremonies in France Germany and the United Kingdom Ceremonies for new citizens are organised in different European countries since the early 2000s These new practices illustrate a political decision to solemnize admission in the national community and materialise a contemporary imagined community Comparing the legislative and administrative evolutions of integration and citizenship policy in France Germany and the United Kingdom we observe contemporary representations and practices of national identification and stress possible processes of convergence in the definition of identity and alterity which question the idea of national models Lisa Vapné Welcoming Jewish Migrants in Germany A Case of Identity Policy Since January 1991 the Federal Republic of Germany has implemented a state policy allowing applicants living in former Soviet Union countries and categorized as Jewish to settle in Germany Originally this policy appeared in the political agenda as a way to host potential victims of anti Semitism in theSoviet Union then it was maintained to rebuild Jewish life in Germany with the influx of post Soviet Jews labelled as an ethno religious group Examining the categorizations that have turned positive representations of this group into negative ones we explain why this policy persisted throughout the 2000s despite the fact that ethnicity was no longer the unique criterion for Germany to define its own nation Antoine Saillard Constructing the Other in State Mechanisms for Controlling Mobility France Second Half of the 19th Century Starting in the mid 19th century several European States developed tools to control movers By targeting specific populations and organizing their

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/n-47-20151-the-construction-of-the-other-defining-identity-at-the-margins-in-the-european-space/ (2016-04-30)
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  • N° 46 2014/4 – The Export of Norms beyond the European Union | Politique européenne
    literature on the circulation of norms in the context of accession to the European Union EU and European neighbourhood policy ENP in order to show that debates on transfer in other disciplines of social sciences can fruitfully nurture those on norm exportation in international relations and in the EU foreign policy in particular The example of differentiated interpretations and translations of the soft norm of good governance in the field of institutional reforms shows that it is necessary to combine difference concepts in order to detail more precisely ongoing processes in relation to the eastern neighbourhood Rodica Plugaru The Power of International Actors in Transfers The Case of International Organizations and Private Firms in Hospital Modernization in Ukraine and Moldova In this article I explore the role of international organizations and private firms in the process of policy transfer taking the case of hospital design modernization in Ukraine and Moldova I argue that international organizations are more powerful than private practices in transferring their experience while the first can exert coercion the second need to sell their hospital model My results show that the World Bank use coercive pressure all along the Moldavian project while in Ukraine the private firms use commercial strategies to transfer their hospital model Nevertheless the economic actors are also capable of using coercive pressures in case all the other soft strategies are unsuccessful Katerina Kesa Sharing the Baltic Experience with Eastern Partnership Countries This paper proposes to study the case of exportation of norms practices and know how by the Baltic States towards Eastern Europe Following an interdisciplinary approach intersecting the mechanisms of Policy Transfert Studies PTS and the historical and comparative approach it attempts to explain the reasons behind the Baltic States involvement in the East the processes and the methods of implementation the role of actors donors as well as their interaction with their local partners Through three study cases of expertise we will draw some parallels with the Nordics assistance towards the Baltics 1990 to see how the Nordic model of assistance serves as an inspiration for the Baltic States action today Hélène Colineau Questioning Norm Diffusion in the EU s Aid to Countries in Transition The Case of Prison Reform Projects This article questions the circulation of norms and policy solutions through the European Union s development cooperation policy the relations between the EU and its partners being less marked by constraints than with candidate countries Our analysis focuses on the concrete aspect of this policy by studying human rights and rule of law promotion through prison reform projects funded by the EU in its partner states mainly from the neighbourhood The agents must translate soft law into actions that will make up the project Ultimately the circulation we observe in these projects is far from obvious but rather fine and dependent on interindividual relationships As a result we contend that this circulation should be considered as diffusion rather than transfer Bernd Weber Convergence at the Borderline EU External Energy Governance

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/n-46-20144-the-export-of-norms-beyond-the-european-union/ (2016-04-30)
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  • N°42 2013/4 – Les politiques économiques européennes face à la Grande Récession | Politique européenne
    européens et politiques crise comme variable écran empêchant de dresser le bilan des stratégies poursuivies Catherine Spieser La fin du modèle de flexicurité face à la résilience des modèles nationaux Syndicats et négociations sur l emploi en Allemagne en France et en Italie Depuis les années 1990 sous l influence de l Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques OCDE puis des stratégies européennes l idée de flexicurité s était imposée comme paradigme dominant des politiques de l emploi et du travail Cependant la crise a remis en question le bien fondé de ce paradigme en temps de récession Depuis 2008 les partenaires sociaux comme les décideurs des politiques publiques se sont saisis de l agenda de la lutte contre la crise de l emploi dans l ensemble des pays européens Une comparaison des cas allemand français et italien nous montre alors les limites de l européanisation et la résilience des modèles nationaux au prisme de l action publique négociée En effet en étudiant le positionnement des organisations syndicales et patronales leurs pratiques du dialogue social et l usage des instruments d action publique ou leur réforme cet article met en évidence trois types de reconfiguration des relations professionnelles face à la crise et donc des appropriations et ajustements différenciés de l idée de flexicurité Laurie Beaudonnet Preferences for European Social Policy in Times of Crisis Le soutien à une politique sociale européenne en temps de crise Depuis 1992 et la création de l Union économique et monétaire les citoyens européens sont de plus en plus conscients des conséquences économiques et sociales de l intégration européenne La crise économique actuelle en augmentant la pression financière sur les politiques de redistribution a renforcé les craintes du public en matière de protection sociale et de dé régulation du marché du travail Néanmoins notre connaissance des préférences en matière de redistribution et de politiques sociales au niveau supranational est encore parcellaire malgré l importance de ces préférences pour le soutien politique dans les régimes multi niveaux Cet article étudie a les facteurs attitudinaux et économiques du soutien à une politique sociale commune et leur évolution dans le temps b l impact de la crise économique actuelle sur ces préférences L étude examine la validité empirique de la logique d exit en se fondant sur une analyse de time series cross section dans l UE des Quinze de 1996 à 2011 Les résultats étayent la thèse de la stratégie d exit et montrent un renforcement de cette logique à la faveur de la crise économique de 2008 George Ross Institutional Knots and EU Economic Governance Intergovernmental Decision Making in the Great Recession and the Eurozone Crisis Tensions Institutionnelles et gouvernance économiques de l UE La méthode intergouvernementale dans la Grande Récession et la crise de la zone euro L Union européenne a depuis toujours construit ses décisions en utilisant conjointement les méthodes communautaires et intergouvernementales Cependant depuis le traité de Maastricht le poids de l intergouvernementalisme n a cessé de croître s accompagnant d

    Original URL path: http://politique-europeenne.eu/fr/n42-20134-les-politiques-economiques-europeennes-face-a-la-grande-recession/ (2016-04-30)
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