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  • An Italian model: Blended Collaborative and Constructive Participation - Elm - European lifelong learning magazine
    to a specific educational goal promoting students capability to self assess their own learning and to outline personal strengths and weaknesses Third step lecture assignment of study material and research question Each module should have a lecture as starting point delivered by the teacher face to face During this introductory lecture the teacher will propose a number of study materials corresponding to the number of students forming the groups Example For instance if you formed groups of six students you should have six materials e g chapters articles power point presentations web sites etc strictly connected to the module and to the lecture This implies that within the groups you have formed at the first step students will study different material and at the same time that the same material will be studied by as many students as the groups have Therefore if you have formed three groups three students will be assigned the same material Inspired by the Jigsaw method Aronson 1978 we will call the group of students having the same material expert groups and the groups of students with different material assigned learning groups The lecture should end by negotiating a challenging and motivating research question which will guide the subsequent online activities The final aim of the module will be to collaboratively articulate an answer to this question The aim of this step is to support individual participation and at the same time the sense of belonging to a group by sharing common goals namely answering to the research question Fourth step the review An adequate amount of time should be allotted to the individual study of the material followed by the writing of a review according to a template provided by the teacher see the appendix Each study material should be posted online so that the expert groups can discuss the different request of the template via web forum or chat as they prefer Once all the reviews are ready a dedicated space should be opened online to post them We suggest the teacher to a randomly select a few reviews b comment on them by using the word tracking option c assigning a general assessment which also includes suggestions about how to improve the review The commented reviews should be posted online and discussed via a web forum Fifth step assigning roles To support active and constructive participation we suggest planning roles to be assigned individually to students For instance leader of the expert group leader of the learning group researcher in charge of seeking information to fulfill the points considered as unclear in the learning materials person responsible of the objects that will be constructed during the following step Further roles can be assigned to ensure the connection between online and offline activities for instance responsibility for of the classroom with the task to take notes during the face to face activities and posting them online teacher contact having the task to ask the teacher for further lectures about points students want to know more about These roles should be rotated through the modules and students just leaving a role could post online suggestions reflections and considerations for the next student covering the role This step can have different levels of complexity ranging from very simple activating just one or two roles to very complex when a role is assigned to each student Example In the university case for examples all the roles mentioned above were gradually implemented each student in each module performed a role Each role indeed was aimed at promoting specific skills connected to the course in this way each student could perform at least 4 roles before completing the course Less roles is also possible as in the teacher training course only the role of group leader was assigned as less time was allocated to the online activities Sixth step toward a group product During this step learning groups are active According to TLA we recommend to finalize this step through the construction of a group shared and meaningful object which could be a map a report a poster or a text The teacher should propose the right type of object according to the age and competences of the students The aim is to combine the knowledge acquired through the individually studied material and the various answers to the research question that the students reported in their reviews A new web forum can be devoted to this step Example In the university case as a group product students produced conceptual maps using google docs as supplementary tool In the teacher training course at the end of each module participants were required to write a collaborative synthesis of the concepts the instructor proposed both through the material posted online and the lectures delivered in presence To write the collaborative text the groups used a wiki like environment Seventh step a course product all together At the end of the course all groups are required to work together to produce a collective and meaningful object Again it is up to the teacher to choose the right object For instance if during the previous step the groups produced a map now the teacher can propose to build a single inclusive map amalgamating the previous maps and including all the concepts studied during the modules Alternatively the product can be a questionnaire to interview an expert of the subject of the course or an observational tool to analyze articles relevant for the course This step is aimed at avoiding the fragmentation that the modular organization may induce Therefore while working on a collective object a twofold aim can be pursued a students have the occasion to gain a broader vision of the course b they can go back to specific concepts not fully grasped during the module activities Assessment This model allows different levels of assessment Individual assessment is possible through the qualitative analysis of the reviews Ligorio 2012 the Role Taking Spadaro Sansone Ligorio 2009 and the e portfolios Impedovo Ritella Ligorio

    Original URL path: http://www.elmmagazine.eu/articles/an-italian-model-blended-collaborative-and-constructive-participation (2016-05-01)
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  • Issue 4/2014 - Elm - European lifelong learning magazine
    learning Eileen Kennedy 13 01 2015 Eileen Kennedy warns of an uncritical attitude to blended learning The method requires advanced skills from the learner and high levels of teacher input to produce quality Read article Archived Issue 4 2014 Playful solutions for lifelong learning Kristiina Kumpulainen Lasse Lipponen 22 12 2014 This article was originally published in Elm s predecessor media LLinE The Playful Learning Centre of Helsinki University aims to develop playful solutions to lifelong and blended learning The authors introduce the Center and reflect on the definitions of play at the Read article Archived Issue 4 2014 Orientation 22 12 2014 Read article Archived Issue 4 2014 A blended review of Salman Khan The One World Schoolhouse Anders Norberg 18 12 2014 The online education resource Khan Academy is a global phenomenon Anders Norberg reviews Salman Khan s 2012 book manifest The One World Schoolhouse from a blended learning viewpoint Read article Archived Issue 4 2014 Homeschooling at sea and at land 18 12 2014 Two Finnish families have chosen to homeschool their children with the aid of online learning This means flexibility and hands on learning but also hard work for both student and parent teacher Read article Archived Issue 4 2014 A critical reflection of the current research in online and blended learning Anthony Picciano 18 12 2014 This article was originally published in Elm s predecessor media LLinE This article reviews the state of the research that focuses on online and blended learning A brief review of the literature is provided followed by critical issues for conducting research in blended Read article Archived Issue 4 2014 Flip your classroom But be aware Mark Cieliebak 18 12 2014 Flipped classrooms where students prepare the topic of next lecture at home have become increasingly popular in recent

    Original URL path: http://www.elmmagazine.eu/theme-issues/issue-4-2014 (2016-05-01)
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  • Bottom Line: Learning for freedom - Elm - European lifelong learning magazine
    thinks he is finally on the right learning path Profile photos not of actual interviewees Photos top Creativecommons org and bottom Walt Stoneburner I nurture the learners independence Michael Lasthaus 56 Pedagogue Director of basic education at secondary schools Münster Germany Learning rooted in real life I am a director of basic education at the prison responsible for both face to face and blended learning courses in German language I also give study counseling We use the ich will lernen portal in the prison The portal is aimed at functional illiterates and people who want to receive a school leaving certificate The learner moves through the platform s 16 levels all the time to the more advanced level So we progress from learning individual letters up to the school leaving certificate level Both online and live tutors support the student Many exercises in the literacy area are rooted in real world experiences For example the learner may be asked to organise a move to a new house or to visit a shop or bank Exercises in the school leaving area have a working life orientation There are sections also for life and money where learners get to grips with the basics of economic literacy This is relevant as more than half of inmates have debt Less stress more focus As an educator I use the portal to nurture the independence of the learner Blended learning requires self discipline from the learner but rewards him or her with the possibility to learn at one s own pace I see very few symptoms of overextension and stress in those students who learn this way Also many students seem to be able to concentrate a lot better with earphones on In an ideal case the self reliance that is developed through blended learning builds the inmate s capacity to return to society Learning online develops also digital literacy while learning success hopefully leads to a hunger for more learning Here I have more courage Karsten 33 Currently in Bautzen prison Bad memories of school An assault conviction got me into the Bautzen Prison This was last year I should be released this year in 2015 I take part in subjects like German reading and maths here in prison My school days are far behind me already and I want to take this opportunity to really brush up my knowledge I am most interested in general knowledge something that I can truly use both here and outside once I am released When I was younger I was bullied for being a slow learner at school I was considered stupid I tried to hide it then but here I have gotten more courage Here I am not afraid to show I have these problems The group learning is no problem for me Plotting one s own path The learning arrangement here means that I can determine and plan my own learning I enjoy using the computer and would like to continue with education outisde prison

    Original URL path: http://www.elmmagazine.eu/articles/bottom-line-learning-for-freedom (2016-05-01)
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  • Media menu for blended learning - Elm - European lifelong learning magazine
    on Twitter Blogs Weiterbildungsblog by Jochen Robes in German This blog about further education and learning innovations is informative and topic specific I like Robes rather neutral and objective style of writing His comments and evaluations are always fair and careful Lehren Lernen Didaktik by Gabi Reinmann in German Gabi Reinmann blogs about learning in higher education mostly in Germany She is an expert of high school didactics and media pedagogy her point of view on current topics of higher education is interesting Stephen s web by Stephen Downes Stephen Downes has a strong personal view which I appreciate The blog points out to a broad variety of current projects and activities with a focus on North America that are important for me to know By reading the blog you get a very good overview of current discussions even if you do not agree with all arguments or views Books Kerres M 2013 Mediendidaktik Konzeption und Entwicklung medialer Lernangebote Oldenbourg München Here I will name my own volume Mediendidaktik unfortunately only available in German at the moment The reason I name my own book is that it tries to bring together the international discussion about instructional design and the German tradition of Didactics which I think is a very fruitful combination and has not reached enough attention The book is in its 4th edition now Originally the intention to write the book was to have a guide for developers of e learning that is based on educational research Currently it is the most often cited basic literature on e learning in German language Journals Computers and education Educational Technology Research and Development The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning Open Praxis My research interests have shifted over the years and my choice of journals have shifted with

    Original URL path: http://www.elmmagazine.eu/articles/media-menu-for-blended-learning (2016-05-01)
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  • The flipside of blended learning - Elm - European lifelong learning magazine
    teachers become co learners However this shift is not easy to achieve Lim et al 2010 used the example of a wiki an easily editable website used as a collaboration platform in educational contexts to show that students favour co operation over collaboration approach sticking to clearly defined tasks and being hesitant to probe or challenge each others ideas For Lim et al 2010 214 the solution rests in changing cultural beliefs about learning so that learners use technology for knowledge construction as opposed to instructors using technology for knowledge transmission The research indicates therefore that students need to be taught both how to learn with digital technology and how to be creative on their own terms with technology outside of learning contexts Don t believe the hype is it really innovation It is also to be questioned how much of blended learning is really innovative Gerbic s 2011 review of the literature on teachers views of blended learning found that there were widely varying levels of integration between elements of face to face and online learning This is critical because as Gerbic 2011 230 argued the need for integration is one of the most critical issues in blended learning without which the approach to learning cannot be said to be blended at all but rather dissonant or disintegrated Gonzales cited in Gerbic 2011 225 6 Developments hailed as blended learning innovations can sometimes be seen as the repacking of older retrograde pedagogies with technology added on The flipped classroom concept is arguably one of these If traditional tutor centric lectures are simply video recorded to be watched by students outside of the classroom this does nothing in itself to create more active learning opportunities for students This kind of learning experience needs to be designed with care otherwise the learning content is simply transferred online to compete with many other stimuli for the students attention Even the most dedicated self regulated learner might struggle to prefer a badly recorded talking head lecture over the myriad of distractions available online It is at times like these that being in the physical presence of the teacher might just help a lot The flipped classroom concept may be just an over publicised version of more considered blended pedagogies that the hype obscures Nevertheless buzz words such as these are often the ones that capture the imaginations of those that make policy decisions about education Nothing can illustrate this more effectively than the way the MOOC Massive Open Online Course phenomenon has spread throughout the education world Yet the emergence of what became known as the xMOOC s i e those based on traditional University courses were pedagogically speaking a backwards step in online course design Combining video lectures with quizzes and unstructured discussion forums early xMOOCs ignored the pedagogy of online learning and went ahead regardless Despite their popularity evidenced by enrolment figures in tens even hundreds of thousands the low completion figures percentages in single figures have been a source of concern Parr 2013 The bigger problem however is as Laurillard 2014 pointed out that MOOCs in no way solve any of the world s pressing educational problems Instead they provide education for the wealthiest and most qualified population for free It is significant that the typical MOOC student already has a degree if not two or three and for that reason possesses the skills for self regulated learning that a MOOC requires Laurillard 2014 argued that the methods used in a MOOC were not sophisticated enough para 9 for teaching a broader range of students even if continuing professional development CPD courses aimed at their teachers might possibly work Sustainable futures for blended learning The excessive numbers of students on a MOOC has meant that personalised communication with a tutor is impossible This may make it look like the technology is replacing the need for teachers However this is far from being the case In many ways online and blended learning may require more teacher input than the traditional face to face approach In order to design effective online teaching and learning activities it is necessary to understand subject content pedagogy and technology This may require highly skilled input from a new set of online learning professionals such as learning designers as well as extensive collaborations between subject tutors learning technologists and digital media producers Even then the online content still needs to be taught and moderation of forums or personalised student feedback can take a great deal of skill and many hours of work So while governments and their advisors may be drawn to innovations such as MOOCs to provide CPD to skill the workforce for the globalised economy BIS 2013 the cost effectiveness of such an approach may not be all that it appears Moreover adding an online element to traditional delivery may be seen as a cost cutting measure since there is a widespread belief that online will be cheaper than face to face Koenig 2011 However there is reason to believe that technology enhanced learning can cost more than other methods Laurillard 2006 In the UK the Government response to recommendations from the Further Education Learning Technology Action Group FELTAG has been to mandate the inclusion in every publicly funded learning programme from 2015 16 of a 10 wholly online component with incentives to increase this to 50 by 2017 2018 BIS 2014 p 16 This represents a massive step up of blended provision in the lifelong learning sector within the UK Such an approach requires a very careful approach to designing the teaching and learning activities as well as an analysis of the costs involved Without that such initiatives may turn out to be educationally ineffective or unsustainable in terms of finance or teacher workload If the success of an approach depends on more tutor hours than an institution has the means or inclination to pay for then it will not work in the long term Teaching needs to be resourced Concluding thoughts the importance

    Original URL path: http://www.elmmagazine.eu/articles/the-flipside-of-blended-learning (2016-05-01)
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  • Playful solutions for lifelong learning - Elm - European lifelong learning magazine
    and learning with new technologies and media urge us to re examine existing definitions of blended learning the theme of this issue What is Playful Learning Center In our times of dynamic and fast paced changes in the cultural economic and technological landscapes there is an increased consensus about the importance of educating people who are not only problem solvers but who can also ask new questions anticipate obstacles even before they arise and play with different ideas possibilities and material tools These all require the ability to use imagination and to think and act creatively in collaboration with others Bateson Martin 2014 Resnick 2013 It is these 21st century learning requirements that are at the core of the research and development endeavors of the Playful Learning Center Finland is known throughout the world for its high level of education expertise and as the home of many innovative gaming companies such as Rovio the creator of Angry Birds Playful Learning Center combines these two spearhead areas of know how creating a new competitive type of top notch expertise for Finland The Center is about research based and user oriented development and innovation which aims to shape Finland into the leading country in playful learning solutions In doing so the Centre s ecosystem brings together Finnish players such as kindergartens schools museums libraries science centers vocational education institutions universities research institutions growth and start up companies and international research and product development organisations Playful Learning Center hosts a living lab or as we like to call it a playground for an interdisciplinary co creative approach to making and testing of a range of playful learning solutions for the promotion of lifelong and lifewide learning in educational institutions and beyond The conceptual basis of the Center draws on sociocultural and sociohistorical notions of play and playfulness in human learning and development e g Vygotsky 1978 Zittoun Cerchia 2013 that are regarded as closely intertwined with imagination creativity and creative learning communities as described earlier The research of Playful Learning Center focuses on generating new knowledge and innovations on playful learning thus tackling topical challenges such as the promotion of creativity co creation practices and media skills in learning and education Playful learning solutions to be researched and developed include digital game design and testing and play based pedagogies and learning environments for educational and cultural institutions and working life The Center is also committed to investigating the theoretical and conceptual developments in our changing understanding of the nature of learning itself and therefore deeply interested in how we might define and harness playful learning both in the academy as well as in public and private sectors in promoting lifelong and lifewide learning The research knowledge and capacity building of the Center is believed to have potential to open up new markets and opportunities for developments in game industry and digital learning solutions in general The core goals of the Center can be summarised as offering new conceptualisations of play and playfulness within

    Original URL path: http://www.elmmagazine.eu/articles/playful-solutions-for-lifelong-learning (2016-05-01)
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  • A blended review of Salman Khan: The One World Schoolhouse - Elm - European lifelong learning magazine
    unity either about what components we are supposed to blend learning environments classroom and online learning media analogue and digital pedagogies always wondered how that would help types of communication oral and digital written etc The mysterious thing is that in this lack of any hidden wisdom in the term BL itself teachers seem to intuitively think they understand the term and they get ideas of how to change teaching and apply them Sharpe Benfield Roberts and Francis 2006 recommend after having investigated and reviewed about 300 UK projects and papers about BL Use the term blended learning 2005 p 4 in part because it allows staff to negotiate their own meaning There is some kind of unity around a future positive value seen at the unclear horizon and people fill it with quite different meanings and works differently for promoting it but seem to somewhat agree anyway Laumakis Graham Dziuban 2009 I believe that the easiest way to think of BL is ICTs Information and Communication Technologies integration into mainstream education as there once was a process when printed text was integrated into education and eventually profoundly changed it How should we understand BL as integration of ICTs One way is that ICT makes a sub process within a traditional frame more effective New uses of technology often first have that kind of applications With ICT in education it has earlier often been understood especially within adult education that it is for transport of education services distance learning BL would then become half distance learning but I think the transformation power of ICT is more profound I believe contemporary BL is a step on the way to the new normal When we have integrated the use of ICT into our teaching and learning mainstream models we will probably no longer think of teaching and learning as blended but as historically developed Norberg 2012 My own take on BL is to think of it not merely as a technology enabled blend of places as classroom and online but as a blend of the synchronous happening at the same time and asynchronous more time flexible modalities prioritizing time over place as a frame We have of course had that pattern in schooling for a long time school day in class homework in evening lessons next day again etc ICTs offer tools for both synchronous and asynchronous settings for the shift between them and for managing parallel worklines more conveniently For the synchronous modality we have classrooms and classroom enhancing ICT tools but also video conference desktop conference Internet telephony chats telepresence robotics etc For the asynchronous we have books and assignments as before but also learning platforms recorded lectures simulations forums mashups and whatever And we can make good shifts between these modalities more easily by continuing a synchronous discussion in an asynchronous forum turning in a question or two on texts which should be read asynchronously before next synchronous meeting etc ICT does one or the other thing more effective Likewise web based online education is often thought of as distance education but we should not thereby think of categorizing BL as any half distance education ICT unbundles conventional services into components and bundles them in other ways so BL can both be used in classrooms and without them if we think of the function of ICTs as enabling both synchronous and asynchronous modalities and the shift between them in a teaching learning process How then can Khan Academies materials functions and strategies be integrated into mainstream schooling First we must ask what kind of materials they are Are they courses modern learning materials or learning objects Is it a coaching function Or even Education The concept of granularity is helpful here The larger and more complex a shared learning object is the more valuable it is to find if it suits a teaching need perfectly This is seldom the case because of the size schools and teachers like to design courses themselves The smaller a learning object is the more generally useful it is but also easier to make on one s own and sometimes hardly worth the search If it is for example only a demonstration of an addition with whole numbers a teacher can as well make it himself Khan Academy s objects are plain but good and many covering a lot and easy to find I see Khan Academy as both a source of learning materials and with a coaching function When blending this into mainstream education I think we have five models explained below A Individual student blend What Khan thought of doing from the beginning was to support individual learners with problems in following the teaching process of math in their class He did not have ambitions to interfere with school in any other way than individual coaching to close learning gaps This we can call Blended Learning as it was action on the learners own initiative part of a subjective strategy The learner is blending himself by new tools and personal strategies irrespective whether the teacher knows this or not It is good enough that he now can follow the teaching in school better For the learner this can promote self confidence and motivation to go on Oliver and Trigwell are arguing that the word learning be rightfully returned to the learner 2005 p 24 This blending has also a social form students helping one another with the help of ICT communication and resources independent of the teaching design This communication is now also being connected to the teaching design with new tools ELI 2010 B Blending in the classroom Khan discovered after a while that some math teachers used his videos in the original classroom setting replacing some activities of what they would have done themselves earlier math procedure demonstrations at the front of the room Youtube Khan was lecturing in the teachers place Not much of an innovation but perhaps freeing up the teacher for other things for example tutoring the

    Original URL path: http://www.elmmagazine.eu/articles/a-blended-review-of-salman-khan-the-one-world-schoolhouse (2016-05-01)
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  • Homeschooling at sea and at land - Elm - European lifelong learning magazine
    will be more hands on than theory We ll visit 75 countries in as many months and much of the teaching will be based on the people cultures and nature we see on the way The Meretniemis acknowledge that their offspring will have a less than ordinary schooling experience They will not be with the same twenty classmates in a big school every day so if you like this is what they will be missing They will however see the world from many alternative perspectives meet kids from over 70 countries and naturally learn languages on the way A typical school lesson aboard for the children might be something along these lines the children swim in the reefs of the South Pacific and observe marine life and corals Together the family would try to understand why and how there are so many different species there What effect do ocean currents water temperature prevailing winds volcanic activity fishing and littering have on marine life We could then interview local people take pictures make videos and maybe contact a university professor in Finland over live internet connection to have more in depth answers Students anywhere in the world could follow these studies over the internet and participate by asking questions Tuomo Meretniemi describes The Meretniemis are not professional pedagogues themselves teaching their own children will be a learning journey for them as well Responsiveness and obedience might me more challenging than in a normal teacher student relationship The parents think that preparation planning and gathering of learning material will play a major role in providing good education in a liveaboard environment We both feel that teaching natural and social sciences will take a very natural course as they will strongly be connected to places where we are cruising Most challenging will be math in the later grades Outside help is welcome You learn for yourself and your future not for the school Home schooled Heidi Wendorf l is now in the 9th grade in comprehensive school and will take her final exams next spring Linda Wendorf is in the 6th grade a year ahead of other children her age Photo Wendorf family The Wendorf family of four relocated from Helsinki Finland to Sarajevo Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2003 because of father Heikki s job At the time firstborn Heidi was three years old and the family was expecting younger sister Linda At first Heidi attended the local Kindergarten and later the local comprehensive school However the quality of teaching at the local school disappointed the Wendorfs We decided the children should rather be schooled at home supported by the virtual school Kulkuri mother Helena Wendorf explains Kulkuri is a virtual school for Finnish expatriate children following the Finnish curriculum The delivery of classes is a mixture of live virtual classes and online written assignments depending on the individual requirements of the students Usually expat students use Kulkuri as an accompaniment to the local school they attend to study specific subjects like Finnish

    Original URL path: http://www.elmmagazine.eu/articles/homeschooling-at-sea-and-at-land (2016-05-01)
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